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TB case findings: Nigeria to identify 432,000 TB cases annually, says institute



By Gistflash

June 10, 2021

The Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria (IHVN), the U.S. Agency for International Development, (USAID) and the Tuberculosis Local Organization Network, (TB LON 3), have said that Nigeria was expected to identify 432,000 tuberculosis cases annually.

The IHVN, Director, Technical Programs, TB LON 3 project, Dr. Olugbenga Daniel, disclosed this in an interview with News Agency of Nigeria(NAN), on Wednesday, in Abuja.

NAN reports that the USAID TB LON 3 project is sited in regions 1, 2 and 3.

Region 1 covers North Central and North East, while Region 2 covers South East and South South, and Region 3 covers the South-Western states of Lagos, Oyo, Ogun and Osun states.

The project’s focuses on finding the missing tuberculosis cases, the annual cases that are expected to be found and the specific strategy that was adopted for the facility and community interventions across the zones.

Daniel said that historically, up until 2020, the country’s case finding had been staggering around 24 to 25 per cent, “which is about 100,000 or 105,000 cases.

“In 2019, we increased to about 116,000/ 120,000 cases, and thereafter we had an increase in 2020 to about 130,000 cases. All these are out of the expected 432,000,” he said.

He added that all the findings were due to the concerted effort of both the public facility intervention, the private facility intervention as well as communities across the zones.

“So, this boils down to the fact that we still have over 300,000 TB cases annually that are yet to be diagnosed and another insight to that is that one positive index TB patient infects 15 people annually.

”If you do the geometric progression of that, knowing the number of people that will be infected annually by undiagnosed TB cases, truly if you look at it critically it is an emergency.

“For the facility intervention, basically what we have done is to ensure 100 percent of the patients that visit the facility are screened for TB and when we say screened for TB we are talking about the clinical screening, asking questions and identifying those that are presumed to have TB,” he explained.

Daniel noted that these people were subsequently sent for further investigation and the cases identified were placed on treatment.

“For the facility, we have the private and public facility interventions.

The public facilities are majorly the general hospitals, teaching hospitals. For the private facilities, we have private-for-profit facilities, individually-owned facilities that are supported for TB and we also engage some faith-based facilities.

“But, be that as it may, these are formal health providers. We have the informal sector, the traditional birth attendants, traditional medicine healers and the community pharmacies,” he explained.

He stressed that 50 percent of hospital attendees were found to visit these facilities first, before visiting the formal health care facilities.

“In that regard, we equally engage some traditional medicine healers, to support them, to ensure that 100 percent of the people that visit their facilities are screened for TB.

”These people are there, as well as the community pharmacies where patients just visit just to get drugs for back pain or maybe cough that started just yesterday, not knowing that it is actually more grievous than what they are expecting,” he added.

Facility intervention had really helped in improving the case findings across the four supported states, he said, adding that based on community strategies, the 300,000 people who are out there annually, that were yet to be identified, were found to be in the community.

Community transmission was ongoing every day, Daniel said, while stressing that if TB services were not taken to them, a number of them might not actually visit the facilities.

“So, what are we doing about that? We have hotspot and when I say hotspot, I mean we have a platform that we use that uses different parameters, age distribution, sex distribution, the HIV prevalence, the financial status and other various strategies, to identify areas with high prevalence of TB.

“This is now used to determine the area that our active case search, house-to-house search intervention, as well as Advocacy Communication and Social Mobilization (ACSM) meetings will be targeting.

“It is a targeted intervention as against just visiting the community blindly and doing the general screening which, over time, has been found to be very ineffective. We’ve also been able to drive more patients to the facility and link them for treatment,” he said.

Daniel added that TB was known to be a disease that was diagnosed in the laboratory, noting that only presumptive cases were identified on the field, at the facility, or the clinic, but the most definitive diagnostics was done at the laboratory.

“Therefore, all of the interventions that you’re putting in place, if there is no top notch diagnostic capacity installed across the service points, at the end of the day, the program will not be as effective as expected.

“So, one of the strategies that we also put in place as a program for the TB LON 3 project is to ensure that we expand the diagnostic capacity of the supported facilities across the targeted states, which has really helped to equally improve the case finding in the supported states,” he said.

The director stressed that to bring facts and figures out, all the states that the IHVN was currently supporting have recorded an increase in case findings since the project began in April 2020, and despite the impact of COVID.

“For quarter 2, we had some case finding drop compared with quarter 1 but in quarter 4, this picked up.

“To round up the first response for the TB LON 3 projects, we have been able to expand the coverage of facilities that are providing TB services across the four states, by instituting the Out Patient Department screening strategy for both the public facility and then the private facilities, and then the high burden LGAs,” he said.

Daniel noted that the IHVN had also improved on the community strategies of the ACSM, hotspots mapping and contact investigation as well as house-to-house search and Outpatient Department (OPD), diagnostic capacity for testing or finding TB cases.


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Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine: COVAX to provide 3.92 additional doses to Nigeria July –NPHCDA



By Gistflash

June 15, 2021

The National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) has announced that Nigeria is to receive 3.92 million additional doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines from COVAX, by the end of July 2021.

The Executive Director, NPHCDA, Dr. Faisal Shuaib, made the announcement at a press briefing on Tuesday, in Abuja.

The News Agency Of Nigeria (NAN) recalled that Nigeria received its first consignment of 3.92 million doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine through the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Assess Facility, COVAX, on March 2, 2021.

COVAX, an initiative co-led by the vaccine alliance, GAVI, and the World Health Organisation (WHO), aims to ensure equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, by dividing about two billion doses across 92 low and middle-income countries.

The facility promises access to vaccines for up to 20 per cent of participating countries’ population with an initial supply beginning in the first quarter of the year, to immunise three per cent of their populations.

“We now have information that Nigeria will get 3.92m doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca by the end of July or early August, 2021.

“As we receive additional information on the exact dates in August, we will provide an update regarding timelines and details of this,” Shuaib said.

The NPHCDA boss stated that a recent  research from Public Health England (PHE) shows that the Indian (Delta) variant B.1.617.2 was 92 per cent susceptible to Oxford/AstraZeneca.

“It is, therefore, comforting to know that the vaccine used in Nigeria can protect against this variant that caused high morbidity and mortality in India.

“However, it underscores the need for us to ramp up our vaccination to more Nigerians,” he stressed.

”I, therefore, urge all Nigerians who have received their first dose at  least six weeks ago to visit the nearest vaccination site to receive their second dose, for full protection against COVID-19 on or before June, 25 when we shall close the administration of the second dose.

“Recall that we officially closed the vaccination for the first dose on May 24, 2021. Since then, we have been inundated with requests by Nigerians to be vaccinated. In response, we have decided to reopen vaccination for the first dose from today.

“This means anyone 18 years and above, who has not been vaccinated should visit the nearest vaccination site for the first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

”For such persons, their second dose will be due in 12 weeks and by then we would have received the next consignment of vaccines,” Shuaib stated.

Shuaib, who urged Nigerians to continue to take precautions to prevent the spread of COVID-19 said:  “I want to ensure that everyone is aware that there has been a rise in COVID-19 cases in several African countries recently. Wearing a face covering over your nose and mouth in public spaces can save lives.

“A curfew remains in place from midnight until 4am every day. Indoor gatherings must be limited to 50 people, and are only permitted if all attendees abide by social distancing and wear face masks.

”And the government has introduced restrictions on incoming travel from high-risk countries and quarantine requirements to keep Nigerians safe,” he urged.

Shuaib added that with a virus like COVID-19, Nigerians must do their part to keep their communities safe.

Also speaking at the briefing, Dr Walter Kazadi, the World Health Organisation (WHO) representative in Nigeria, said the threat of a third wave of COVID-19 was real and was rising in the African Region, including Nigeria.

He added that a rapid rollout of COVID-19 vaccines was, therefore, important, while intensifying the COVID-19 preventive measures, such as physical distancing, wearing a mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, washing your hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue.

Kazadi said that while an increasing number of Nigerians were being fully vaccinated, there was a need for all to continue to adhere to the Non-Pharmaceutical interventions as recommended by the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC).

Speaking earlier, a representative from UNICEF Nigeria, Dr Peter Hawkins, said it would be good for Nigerians to understand that the global supply chain for vaccines was limited.

Hawkins, who was represented by, Dr. Gupta Gagan, called on all health workers, essential workers and people with co-morbidity to ensure that they get vaccinated, as the country reopens administration of first doses.

“Do not miss this opportunity, you are much more at risk because of your profession and exposure and you are critical to continue the service delivery, this is another opportunity for you.

“And to those that have taken the first dose please ensure that you complete your immunization by taking the second dose, if you don’t take the second  dose, you do not only put yourself at risk, but deprive other Nigerians of the vaccination from COVID-19.  So please reach out to your nearest centre and take your second dose.”

Besides receiving the COVAX supplied Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines in March, NAN recalled that Nigeria received another 300,000 doses of the same vaccine from telecom giant, MTN, the same month.

On April 6, the government of India also delivered 100,000 doses of Covishield vaccines to Nigeria, bringing the total doses of vaccines in stock to about 4.4million.

Due to limited doses of the vaccine, the Nigerian government announced a pause in the vaccine rollout, once half of the about 4.4million doses in stock were exhausted to forestall stock out when those already vaccinated start returning for their second doses.

The AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is given in double doses. A person is required to come back for a second shot, some weeks after taking the first jab.


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NAF College of Nursing to commence ND programme



By Gistflash

June 13, 2021

The Nigerian Air Force (NAF) says its  College of Nursing (NAFCON), Kaduna State, will  soon commence National Diploma (ND)  in Nursing Training.
This followed the approval granted  by the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) to commence ND in Nursing Training.
A statement by the Director of Public Relations and Information, NAF Headquarters, Air Commodore Edward Gabkwet, stated that the approval implied that NAFCON would  terminate the three years nursing training and switch to ND in General Nursing.
Gabkwet said that Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has included NAFCON in its 2022 brochure for candidates.
According to him, all candidates seeking admission into NAFCON for 2021/2022 academic session will now go through the University Matriculation Examination conducted by JAMB to be eligible for admission into ND General Nursing.
The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that NAF, in October 2019, inaugurated the  NAF School of Medical Sciences and Aviation Medicine (NAFSMSAM) at the NAF Base, Kaduna State.
Gabkwet noted that the school, which had three colleges within its span of control, including NAFCON, was tasked with the initial training of nurses and medical technicians in the allied medical fields including  pharmacy, medical laboratory and preventive health services.
Gabkwet added that the school also organised upgrading and refresher courses for various categories of NAF Medical Services personnel aimed at exposing them to global best practices in aviation medicine.

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COVID-19: 107,283 persons receive 2nd COVID-19 vaccine dose in Lagos



By Gistflash

June 13, 2021

The Lagos State Commissioner for Health, Prof. Akin Abayomi, says 107,283 persons have received the second dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine in the state as at June 10,2021.

Abayomi made this known through his Instagram account @ProfAkinAbayomi, on Sunday while giving the state’s COVID-19 Vaccination update for June 10.

He said that 8,929 persons received the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine on the reported date.

According to him, 210, 633 persons who received the first jab of the vaccine were yet to get the second dose of the vaccine.

The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the commissioner had earlier disclosed that 317,916 persons were vaccinated with the first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine.

Abayomi said that administration of the second dose of the vaccine which began on May 28 would end on July 9,2021.

He advised citizens who had received their first dose to proceed to the health facilities where they got their first dose on their scheduled appointment dates.

The commissioner also advised residents to stagger their arrival at the vaccination site from between 8.00 a.m to 1.oo p.m to avoid overcrowding and overwhelming the health workers.


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